October was established as the month of the rosary in 1571. That year, on 7. October, a catholic fleet succeeded against all odds in preventing a Turkish invasion of Europe at Lepanto. Pope Pius knew that the Christian fleet was no match for the superior Turkish forces, so he asked all Christians in Europe to pray the rosary. During the battle civilians all over Europe participated in processions while praying the rosary. When victory was assured, Pope Pius, who was hundreds of kilometres away from the battlefield, is said to have got up from a meeting, walked over to a window and pronounced with a supernatural radiance: "The Christian fleet is victorious!"